Shrinking Cities

Sources by list

The sources that follow are listed in alphabetical order.  The "Summary / review" after the citation means that there is a summary and/or review, completed by VT MURP students, for the source.




Aber, Jasmin. “The Future of Shrinking Cities - Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context.”  Edited by Karina Pallagst and others. Center for Global Metropolitan Studies, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, and the Shrinking Cities International Research Network, 2009.  111-120. [Governance & Policy, International]

Accordino, John and Gary Johnson. “Addressing the Vacant and Abandoned Property Problem.” Journal of Urban Affairs 22 (2000): 301-315. [Vacant Property]

Accordino, John, George Galster, and Peter Tatian. “The Impact of Targeted Public and Nonprofit Development on Neighborhood Development,” Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. July 2005. [Governance & Policy]

Aeppel, T. “Youngstown thinks small to counter population decline.” The Wall Street Journal. May 3, 2007. [Case Studies]

Agyeman, Julian and Tom Evans. “Toward Just Sustainability in Urban Communities: Building Equity Rights with Sustainable Solutions.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 590 (2003): 35-53. [Participatory Planning, Sustainability]

Alexander, Frank S. Land Bank Authorities: A Guide for the Creation and Operation of Local Land Banks. New York: Local Initiatives Support Corporation.2005. [Vacant Property]

Alexander, Frank S. “Landbanking as Metropolitan Policy.” Blueprint for American Prosperity.Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. 2008. . [Vacant Property, Governance & Policy]

Allweil, Yael. "Shrinking Cities: Like a Slow-Motion Katrina". Places-Massachusetts. 19 (2007): 91-93. [Academic Analysis]

Anderson, L. L. Shrinking Cities and the Need for Reinvented Understanding of the City. AESOP 2005. [Academic Analysis]

Andrews, Nancy.  Equity with a Twist: The Changing Capital Needs of the Community Development Field.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, 2001.

Anglin, Roland V. (Ed.).  Building the Organizations that Build Communities:  Strengthening the Capacity of Faith- and Community-Based Development Organizations.  Washington, DC:  US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2004.

Annie E. Casey Foundation. Responsible Redevelopment: Relocation Road Map 1.0.
Neighborhood Development Best Practices. Baltimore, MD.: Annie E. Casey Foundation.
2008. -- Summary / Review

Annie E. Casey Foundation. Eminent Domain: Implications for Community Redevelopment
Efforts. Monograph series on Neighborhood Development. Baltimore, MD.: Annie E. Casey
Foundation. 2007. -- Summary / Review

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Beauregard, Robert A. Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of U.S. Cities. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2003. [Academic Analysis, Causes of Decline]

Beauregard, R. “Aberrant Cities: Urban Population Loss in the United States, 1820-1930.” Urban Geography. 24 (2003), 672-690. [Academic Analysis, Causes of Decline]

Beck, N. J., A.V. Chan, B. Kalra, B., R. Malloy, H.L. McPhail, R.M. Schneider, D. Somers, S.E. Traxler, and X. Wang. New Directions for Vehicle City: A Framework for Brownfield Reuse. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 2005. [Brownfield Redevelopment]

Been, V. and I. Voicu. “The Effect of Community Gardens on Neighboring Property Values.” New York University School of Law, New York University Law and Economic Working Papers, 2006. [Urban Agriculture, Housing]

Belsley, David A, Edwin Kuh, and Roy E. Welsch. Regression Diagnostics : Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. New York:Wiley, 1980. [Academic Analysis]

Bloomberg, Michael, and New York (NY). PlaNYC: a Greener, Greater New York. New York: The City of New York, 2007. [Case Studies, Planning Documents, Sustainability]

Bluestone, Barry, and Bennett Harrison. The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community Abandonment and the Dismantling of Basic Industry. New York: Basic, 1982. [Causes of Decline]

Bonfiglio, Olga. "Delicious in Detroit". Planning. 75 (2009): 32-37. [Case Studies]

Bontje, M. “Facing the Challenge of Shrinking Cities in East Germany: The Case of Leipzig.” GeoJournal. 61 (2004): 13-21. [Case Studies, Academic Analysis, International]

Bowman, Anne O'M., and Michael Pagano. Terra Incognita: Vacant Land and Urban Strategies. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2004. [Vacant Property]

Bratt, Rachel G.  “Community Development Corporations and Other Nonprofit Housing Organizations:  Challenges Presented by the Private Housing Market.”  Cambridge:  Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2006.

Bratt, Rachel G.  Viewing Housing Holistically: The Resident-Focused Component of the Housing-Plus Agenda.  Journal of the American Planning Association.  74, no.1 (2008), 100-110.

Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program. Restoring Prosperity: The State Role in Revitalizing America’s Older Industrial Cities. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2007. [Governance & Policy]

Brophy, Paul and Jennifer Vey. “Seizing City Assets: Ten Steps to Urban Land Reform,” The Brookings Institution, October 2002. [Vacant Property, Governance & Policy]

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Cave, Damien. "After Century of Growth, Tide Turns in Florida." The New York Times, August 29, 2009. [Case Studies]

Chan, Edwin, and Grace K. L. Lee. "Critical Factors for Improving Social Sustainability of Urban Renewal Projects." Social Indicators Research. 85 (2008): 243-256. [Social Networks]

Chan, Edwin, and Grace K. L. Lee. "The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach for Assessment of Urban Renewal Proposals." Social Indicators Research. 85 (2008): 155-168. [Social Networks, Academic Analysis]

Chicago (Ill.). Chicago Climate Action Plan: Our City, Our Future. Chicago, Ill: City of Chicago, 2008. [Case Studies, Planning Documents, Sustainability]

City of Youngstown. Youngstown 2010 Citywide Plan. Youngstown (OH), 2005. [Governance & Policy, Planning Documents, Case Studies]

Choldin, Harvey M. and Claudine Hanson. “Subcommunity Change in a Changing Metropolis.” The Sociological Quarterly 22 (1981): 549-564. [Social Networks]

Clancy, Michael and Casey Newton. “Phoenix May Be Losing People.” The Arizona Republic, January 12, 2009. [Case Studies]

Clark, D. Urban Decline: The British Experience. London: Routledge, 1989. [Case Studies, Causes of Decline, International]

Cleveland Community Research Partners and ReBuild Ohio. $60 Million and Counting: The Cost of Vacant and Abandoned Properties to Eight Ohio Cities. 2008. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

Coates, Sam. “David Cameron Faces a Grim Trip up North After Call to Abandon Poor Cities,” The Times (London). August 13, 2008: [Case Studies, International]

Cohen, James R. “Abandoned Housing: Exploring Lessons from Baltimore.” Housing Policy Debate. 12, no. 3 (2001): 415-48. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

Culhane, Dennis P., and Amy E. Hillier. “Comment on Abandoned Housing: Exploring Lessons From Baltimore.” Housing Policy Debate. 12, no. 3 (2001): 449-55. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

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Dair, Carol M. and Katie Williams. “Sustainable Land Reuse: The Influence of Different Stakeholders in Achieving Sustainable Brownfield Developments in England.” Environment and Planning A. 38, no. 7 (2006): 1345-66. (abstract) [Sustainability] -- Summary / review

Delken, Ellis. “Happiness in Shrinking Cities in Germany: A Research Note.” Journal of Happiness Studies. 9 (2008): 213-218. [Social Networks]

Desplaces, David E., Margery Steinberg, Susan Coleman, and Amy Kenworthy-U'Ren. "A Human Capital Model: Service-Learning in the Micro Business Incubator Program." Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. 2006: 66-80. [Economic Development]

Dewar, Margaret. “Selling Tax-Reverted Land.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 72, no. 2 (2006): 167-180. [Vacant Property]

Dewar, Margaret and Kris Wernstedt. “Challenges in Reusing Vacant, Abandoned, and Contaminated Urban Properties.”  Land Lines. April, 2-7, 2009. [Vacant Property, Brownfield Redevelopment] -- Summary / review

Dougherty, Conor. “Cities Grow at Suburbs' Expense During Recession.” The Wall Street Journal. July 1, 2009. [Case Studies]

Dovery, K. and L. Sandercock. “Pleasure, Politics, and the ‘Public Interest’ : Melbourne’s Riverscape Revitalization.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 68, no. 2 (2002): 151-165. [Participatory Planning, Case Studies, International]

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Edsforth, Ronald William. A second industrial revolution: The transformation of class, culture, and society in Twentieth-Century Flint. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Michigan, Michigan State University, 1982. [Causes of Decline, Case Studies]

Eggler, Bruce. “It's Time for New Orleans to Admit It's a Shrinking City, Some Say,”, 22 November 22, 2008. (Part 1 of 2 – link to Part 2 provided in the article) [Case Studies]

Evans, Candy. "New Feudalism: Does Home Ownership Have a Future?" New Geography. August 27, 2009. [Housing]

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Finkler, Earl, William J. Toner, Frank J. Popper. Urban Nongrowth : City Planning for People. New York: Praeger, 1976. [Governance & Policy, Participatory Planning]

Foote, Jane. "Health Careers Institute: A Model of Workforce Development." Community College Journal of Research & Practice. (2006): 129-130. [Economic Development]

Friedman, Eric. “Vacant Properties in Baltimore: Strategies for Reuse.”  January 18, 2003. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

Fremstad, Shawn, Radhika Fox, and Jason Walsh. “Bringing Home the Green Recovery: A User’s guide to the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” Center for Economic and Policy Research, CEPR Reports and Issues Briefs. 2009. [Stimulus 2009] -- Summary / review

Fullilove, Mindy Thompson. "Psychiatric Implications of Displacement:Contributions from the Psychology of Place." The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996: 1516-1523. [Psychology of Place]

Fullilove, Mindy T. "Root Shock:  How Tearing Up City Neighhorhoods Hurts America, And What We Can Do About It. New York, N.Y.: One World / Ballantine Books. 2004. -- Summary / Review

Fullilove, Mindy T. "Root Shock: The Consequences of African American Disposession." Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2001:72-80. [Psychology of Place]

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Gasser, W. “The Southeast Land Bank.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 45 no. 4 (1979): 532-537. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

Giles-Gee, Helen, and Mark Rozewski. "Higher Education and Health Care Institutions as Stimuli for the Revitalization of Camden, New Jersey, Through Capital Expansion,Collaboration, and Political Advocacy." Planning for Higher Education. 2006: 5-13. [Education, Economic Development, Case Studies]

Gilman, Theodore J. “Urban Redevelopment in Omuta, Japan and Flint, Michigan: A Comparison.” In The Japanese City, edited by P. P. Karan. and K. Stapleton. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1997. [Case Studies]

Glaeser, Edward and Joseph Gyourko. “Urban Decline and Durable Housing.” Journal of Political Economy. 113, no. 2 (2005), 345-375. [Academic Analysis, Housing]

Good Jobs First. “High Road or Low Road?” Job Quality in the New Green Economy. February 2009. [Stimulus 2009]

Gratz, Roberta Brandes. “Demolition a Wrong Answer For Imperiled Neighborhoods,” Citiwire, June 18, 2009. [Vacant Property]

Griswold, N. G. and P.E. Norris. “Economic Impacts of Residential Property Abandonment and the Genesee County Land Bank in Flint, Michigan.” The MSU Land Policy Institute. 2007. Available at [Vacant Property]

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Hall, Peter. “Modeling the Post-Industrial City.” Futures. 29, no. 4/5 (1997): 311-322. [Academic Analysis]

Hanlon, Bernadette. “The Decline of Older, Inner Suburbs in Metropolitan America.” Housing Policy Debate. 19, no. 3 (2008): 423-456. [Causes of Decline, Academic Analysis]

Hasse, Dagmar. “Urban Ecology of Shrinking Cities: An Unrecognized Opportunity.” Nature and Culture. 3, no. 1 (2008): 1-8. [Academic Analysis, Ecology]

Hillier, A.E., D.P. Culhane, T.E. Smith, and C.D. Tomlin. “Predicting Housing Abandonment With the Philadelphia Neighborhood Information System.” Journal of Urban Affairs. 25, no. 1 (2003):91-105. [Social Networks, Housing, Vacant Properties]

Hollander, Justin. B., K. Pallagst, T. Schwarz, and F.J. Popper. Planning Shrinking Cities. 2009. Available at [Academic Analysis, Governance & Policy]

Hollander, Justin B. Polluted and Dangerous: America's Worst Abandoned Properties and What Can Be Done About Them. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press, 2009. [Vacant Properties]

Hollander, Justin B. and Frank Popper. “Planning Practice and the Shrinking City: Reversing the Land Use Location Model.” Plan Canada. 47, no. 2 (2007): 38-40. [Governance & Policy, Land Use]

Hollander, Pamela and Justin Hollander. “Activist Literacy in Shrinking Cities: Lessons for Urban Education.” Language Arts Journal of Michigan, 23, no. 3 (2008): 42-50. [Education, Participatory Planning]

“However Unspectacular.” In Philipp Oswalt (ed.): Shrinking cities. Volume 2: Interventions. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2005. [Academic Analysis, International]

Hoyt, Homer. One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933. [Land Use, Economice Development, Case Studies]

Hurley, Andrew. “Narrating the Urban Waterfront: The Role of Public History in Community Revitalization.” The Public Historian. 28, no. 4 (2006): 19-50. [Participatory Planning]

Hudnut, William H. Changing Metropolitan America: Planning for a Sustainable Future. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2008. [Sustainability]

Hudnut, William H. Cities on the Rebound: a Shared Vision of Urban America. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1998. [Academic Analysis, Case Studies]

Hutzel, Karen. "Reconstructing a Community, Reclaiming a Playground: A Participatory Action Research Study." Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education. 2007: 299-315. [Participatory Planning]

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Jackson, Kenneth. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanizaton of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. [Causes of Decline, Academic Analysis]

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Kane, Mary. "Zombie Subdivisions and Shadow Inventories Holding Back Housing Recovery." The Washington Independent. August 11, 2009. [Housing]

Kasumagic, Larisa. "Engaging Youth in Community Development: Post-War Healing and Recovery in Bosnia and Herzegovina." International Review of Education. 2008: 375-392. [Psychology of Place, International]

Kauffman, Jerry and Bailkey. Farming Inside Cities: Entrepreneurial Urban Agriculture in the United States. Cambridge: Lincoln Land Institute of Land Policy, 2000. Available at [Urban Agriculture]

Keating, W. Dennis and Thomas Bier. Greater Cleveland’s First Suburbs Consortium: Fighting Sprawl and Suburban Decline. Housing Policy Debate. 19, no. 3 (2008): 457-477. [Governance & Policy, Case Studies]

Keating, W. Dennis, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star (eds.). Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1996. [Academic Analysis]

Keenan, P., S. Lowe, and S. Spencer. “Housing Abandonment in Inner Cities: The Politics of Low Demand for Housing.” Housing Studies. 14, no. 5 (1999): 703-716. [Vacant Properties]

Kinloch, Valerie. "Youth Representations of Community, Art, and Struggle in Harlem." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. 2007: 37-49. [Psychology of Place]

Knox, Paul. L. “Creating Ordinary Places: Slow Cities in a Fast World.” Journal of Urban Design. 10, no. 1 (2005): 1-11. [Sustainability, Academic Analysis]

Kromer, John. Neighborhood Recovery: Reinvestment Policy for the New Hometown. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000. [Academic Analysis, Governance & Policy]

Krumholz, Norman; Keating, W. D.; Star, Philip D.; & Chupp, Mark C.  (2006).  The Long-term Impact of CDCs on Urban Neighborhoods:  Case Studies of Cleveland's Broadway-Slavic Village and Tremont Neighborhoods.  Journal of Community Development Society.  37, no.4 (2006), 33-52. [Community Development]

Kühn, M. & H. Liebmann. Strategies for Urban Regeneration – The Transformation of Cities in Northern England and Eastern Germany. Restructuring Eastern Germany. Springer: Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. Available at: [Case Studies, International]

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Lackmeyer, Steve, and Jack Money. OKC: Second Time Around: A Renaissance Story. Oklahoma City, Okla: Full Circle Press, 2006. [Case Studies]

Lang, R.E. Edgeless Cities: Exploring the Elusive Metropolis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. [Causes of Decline]

Lay, Tim, and Bestor Cram (directors). Making Sense of Place:  Cleveland:  Confronting Decline in an American City.  DVD. Northern Light Productions and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2006. [Case Studies, Causes of Decline, Participatory Planning] -- Summary / review

Leigh, Nancey Greene. “The State Role in Urban Land Redevelopment.” The Brookings Institution. April 2003. [Governance & Policy]

Leigh, Nancey Green, and Sarah L. Coffin. “Modeling the Relationship among Brownfields, Property Values, and Community Revitalization.” Housing Policy Debate. 16 , no. 2 (2005): 257-280. [Brownfied Redevelopment, Housing] -- Summary / review


Lemann, Nicholas. “The Myth of Community Development.” New York Times Magazine. January 9, 1994. 6-27. [Causes of Decline] -- Summary / review

Libertun de Duren, Nora. “Gated Communities as a Municipal Development Strategy.” Housing Policy Debate. 18, no. 3 (2007): 607-626. [Housing]

Lunday, E. "Reviving Neighborhoods through Art". Urban Land. 66, no. 8 (2007): 70-75. [Case Studies, Psychology of Place]

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Mallach, Alan.  Facing the Urban Challenge:  Reimagining Land Use in America's Distressed Older Cities:  The Federal Policy Role.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010.

Mallach, Alan, Lavea Brachman.  Ohio's Cities at a Turning Point:  Finding the Way Forward.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010.

Mallach, Alan. How to Spend $3.92 Billion: Stabilizing Neighborhoods by Addressing Foreclosed and Abandoned Properties. Philadelphia: Federal Reserve Bank, 2008. [Housing, Vacant Property]

Martinez-Fernandez, Christina and Wu Chung-Tong. “Shrinking Cities in Australia: State of Australian Cities.” University of Western Sydney, Australia, 2007.  p.795-810.  [Academic Analysis, International]

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. [Social Networks, Psychology of Place]

Matthews, Anne. Where the Buffalo Roam. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1992. [Psychology of Place]

Matthews, Rick Arnold. What's good for GM...: Deindustrialization and crime in four Michigan cities, 1975—1993. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Western Michigan University, 1997. [Causes of Decline, Case Studies]

May, George S. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965. [Causes of Decline, Case Studies]

Mayer, Heike and Paul L. Knox. “Slow Cities: Sustainable Places in a Fast World.” Journal of Urban Affairs. 28, no. 4 (2006), 321-334. [Sustainability, Academic Analysis]

McGovern, Stephen J. “Philadelphia’s Neighborhood Transformation Initiative: A Case Study of Mayoral Leadership, Bold Planning and Conflict.” Housing Policy Debate. 17, no. 3 (2006): 529-570. [Participatory Planning, Vacant Property, Case Studies]

McShepard, Randell and Stewart, Fran. “Rebuilding Blocks: Efforts to Revive Cleveland Must
Start by Treating What Ails Neighborhoods”. Public Policy. Cleveland, OH: PolicyBridge.
2009. -- Summary / Review

Mendes, W., K. Balmer, T. Kaethler, and A. Rhoads. “Using Land Inventories to Plan for Urban Agriculture.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 74, no. 4 (2008): 435-450. [Vacant Property, Urban Agriculture]

Meyer, Diana A.; Britt, Trevor; Cardenas, Sabina; Fromm, David; Kennedy, Ian; Magnuson, Patricia; et al.  Creating Opportunities for Families Through Resident Services: A Practitioner's Manual.  Columbia, MD:  Enterprise Community Partners, Inc., 2006.

Miller, Matt. “Regional Report: Milwaukee: Beyond the Rust Belt,” The Deal Magazine. June 2, 2008. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials Staff. “The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: A Primer for the HCD Practitioner.” Journal of Housing and Community Development. 66, no. 2 (2009): 30-35. [Stimulus 2009]

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National Congress for Community Economic Development (NCCED).  Reaching New Heights: Trends and Achievements of Community-Based Development Organizations.  Washington, DC: NCCED, 2005.

Newberg, S. "Melbourne Reborn: Melbourne, Australia's City Center Has Come to Life Over the Past 20 Years and Is Now Burgeoning With New Public Parks, Squares, and Art; Improved Streetscapes; and More Downtown Housing.” Urban Land. 67, no. 10 (2008): 109-115. [Case Studies, International]

Northam, Ray M. “Declining Urban Centers in the United States: 1940-1960.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 53, no. 1 (1963): 50-59. [Academic Analysis, Case Studies]

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Oswalt, B.P and T. Rieniets. “Global context: Shrinking Cities.” Shrinking Cities Web Site. 2007. [International]

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Pagano, Michael and Ann Bowman. “Vacant Land in Cities: An Urban Resource,” The Brookings Institution. December 2000. [Vacant Properties]

Pallagst, K. M. “The End of the Growth Machine.” Berliner Debatte Initial. January 2007. [Causes of Decline, International]

Parr, Adrian. "Shrinking Cities: Between 1990 and 2000, One in Four of the World's Cities Was Shrinking." Landscape Architecture Australia. 116 (2007): 33-37. [Academic Analysis, International]

Pickard, J., and W. Chilton. "Five Cities, Five Strategies for Regeneration". Urban Land. 66, no. 7 (2007): 50-58. [Case Studies]

Pittsburgh (Pa.). Pittsburgh Climate Action Plan, Version 1.0. Pittsburgh, Pa: Green Building Alliance, 2008. [Case Studies, Planning Documents, Sustainability]

Policies to Address Urban Vacant Land and Property Reuse. Recycling the City: The Use and Reuse of Urban Land. Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. [Vacant Property]

Popper, Deborah, and Frank J. Popper. "Small Can Be Beautiful." Journal of Planning Literature. 17, no. 2 (2002): 262-331. [Academic Analysis]

Popper, D.E., and F.J. Popper. “Small Can Be Beautiful: Coming to Terms With Decline.” Planning. 68, no. 7 (2002): 20-23. [Academic Analysis]

Price-Spratlen, Townsand and Avery Guest. “Race and Population Change: A Longitudinal Look at Cleveland Neighborhoods.” Sociological Forum. 17, no. 1 (2002): 105-136. [Case Studies]

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Reep, Richard. "Live By the Specialty, Die By the Specialty." New Geography. August 23, 2009. (accessed September 20, 2009). [Economic Development]

Richmond Local Initiatives Support Cooperation, “The Ripple Effect.” (date unspecified) [Vacant Property]

Robinson and Cole. “Urban Blight: An Analysis of State Blight Statutes and Their Implications for Eminent Domain Reform.” Realtor. October 2007. [Vacant Property, Governance & Policy]

Rohe, William M., Bratt, Rachel G., & Biswas, Protip. Evolving Challenges for Community Development Corporations: The Causes and Impacts of Failures, Downsizings and Mergers.  Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, 2003.

Rosenthal, Stuart S. "Old Homes, Externalities, and Poor Neighborhoods. A Model of Urban Decline and Renewal." Journal of Urban Economics. 63, no. 3 (2008): 816. [Housing, Academic Analysis]

Rust, Edgar. No Growth: Impacts on Metropolitan Areas. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1975. [Academic Analysis]

Rybczynski, Witold and Peter D. Linneman. “How to Save Our Shrinking Cities.” Public Interest. 135 (1999): 30-44. [Academic Analysis] -- Summary / review

Ryznar, Rhonda M., and Thomas W. Wagner. “Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Detect Urban Change : Viewing Detroit from Space.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 67, no. 3 (2001). [Academic Analysis]

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Samsa, Matthew J. (2008). “Reclaiming Abandoned Properties: Using Public Nuisance Suits and Land Banks to Pursue Economic Redevelopment,” Cleveland State Law Review 56:189-232. [Vacant Property]

Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991. [Academic Analysis, International]

Schilling, Joseph. In Cities Growing Smaller: Urban Infill.  Edited by Steve Rugare and Terry Schwarz.  Cleveland:  Kent State University, 2008. 31-43. [Academic Analysis]

Schilling, J. and J. Logan. “Greening the Rust Belt: A Green Infrastructure Model for Right Sizing America's Shrinking Cities.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 74, no. 4 (2008): 451-466. [Academic Analysis, Sustainability]

Schumacher, E.F. Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. [Economic Development]

Self, Robert O. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003. [Participatory Planning, Case Studies]

Sheridan, M. "Houston's Downtown Transformation: More Than $4 Billion in Public and Private Projects Has Transformed the Central Business District of America's Fourth-Largest City.” Urban Land. 67, no. 10 (2008): 82-93. [Economic Development, Case Studies]

Smith, Neil, Paul Caris, and Elvin Wyly. “The ‘Camden Syndrome’ and the Menace of Suburban Decline: Residential Disinvestment and Its Discontents in Camden County, New Jersey.” Urban Affairs Review.36, no. 4 (2001): 497-531. [Causes of Decline, Case Studies]

Stoecker, Randy.  The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment:  A Critique and an Alternative.  Journal of Urban Affairs.  19, no.1 (1997), 1–22.

Stohr, K. “Shrinking City Syndrome.” The New York Times. February 5, 2004. [Causes of Decline]

Sugrue, T.J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. [Causes of Decline, Case Studies]

Summerton, Michael. “From Motor City to Garden City.” Planetizen. April 27, 2009. [Vacant Property, Case Studies]

Swope, Christopher. “Smart Decline.” Governing Magazine. November 2006. [Land Use]

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Temkin, Kenneth and William Rohe. “Neighborhood Change and Urban Policy.” Journal of Planning Education and Research. 15 (1996):159-170. [Academic Analysis, Governance & Policy]

Treuhaft, Sarah & Kingsley, G. Thomas.  Transforming Community Development With Land Information Systems:  Policy Focus Report.  Cambridge:  Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2008.

Tumber, Catherine. “Small, Green and Good:  the Role of Neglected Cities in a Sustainable Future.”  Boston Review. March/April 2009. [Sustainability] -- Summary / review

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United States Conference of Mayors. Combating Problems of Vacant and Abandoned Properties:  Best Practices in 27 Cities.  June 2006. [Governance & Policy]

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy Development and Research. U.S. Housing Market Conditions. May 2004. [Housing]

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Vale, Lawrence J. and Thomas J. Campanella, ed. The Resilient City: How Modern Cities Recover From Disaster. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. [Economic Development, Academic Analysis]

Vergara, C. J. The New American Ghetto. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995. [Causes of Decline, Academic Analysis]

Vey, Jennifer S. Restoring Prosperity: The State Role in Revitalizing America’s Older Industrial Cities. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, 2007. [Governance & Policy]

Vidal, Avis C.  Can Community Development Re-Invent Itself? The Challenges of Strengthening Neighborhoods in the 21st Century.  Journal of the American Planning Association.  63, no.4 (1997), 429–438.

Vogel, M. "Greening Waterfront Development." Urban Land. 66, no. 8 (2007): 76-83. [Sustainability]

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Wachter, Susan M., Gillen, Kevin C., & Brown, Carolyn R. "Green Investment Strategies: A Positive Force in Cities." Communities & Banking. 2008: 25‐27.  --  Summary / Review

Wachter, Susan M. & Gillen, Kevin C. “Public Investment Strategies: How They Matter for Neighborhoods in Philadelphia.” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2006. Available at [Participatory Planning, Case Studies, Governance & Policy]

Wallace, R. “Homelessness, Contagious Destruction of Housing and Municipal Service Cuts in New York City: 1. Demographics of a Housing Deficit.” Environment and Planning A. 21 (1989): 1285-1603. [Causes of Decline, Housing]

Wiechmann, Thorsten. “Errors Expected – Aligning Urban Strategy with Demographic Uncertainty in Shrinking Cities.” International Planning Studies. 13, no. 4 (2008): 431-446. [Governance & Policy]

Wilson, D. and H. Margulis. “Spatial Aspects of Housing Abandonment in the 1990s: The Cleveland Experience.” Housing Studies. 9, no. 4 (1994):493-511. [Housing, Case Studies]

Wilson, W.J. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987. [Academic Analysis, Governance & Policy]

Winthrop, Bob and Rebecca Herr. “Determining the Co$t of Vacancies in Baltimore.” Government Finance Review. 25, no. 3 (2009). [Case Studies, Vacant Property]

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Zande, Robin Vande (2006). "The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things." International Journal of Art & Design Education. 2006: 205-216. [Urban Agriculture, Sustainability]

Zielenbach, Sean.   Measuring the Impact of Community Development.  Communities & Banking.  Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Fall 2004.  ttp://