Shrinking Cities

Sources by Topic

The following sources are listed according to their topics.  Some of the sources cover different topics, so those sources are listed under several topics.  The "Summary / review" after the citation means that there is a summary and/or review, completed by VT MURP students, for the source.

___________________________________________________________________________

Academic Analysis--Brownfield Redevelopment--Case Studies--Causes of Decline
Community Development-- Ecology--Economic Development--Education
Government and Policies-- Housing--Information System-- International
Land Use--Participatory Planning-- Planning Document--Psychology of Place
Social Networks--Stimulus 2009-- Sustainability--Urban Agriculture
Vacant Properties


Academic Analysis

Allweil, Yael. "Shrinking Cities: Like a Slow-Motion Katrina". Places-Massachusetts. 19 (2007): 91-93.

Anderson, L. L. Shrinking Cities and the Need for Reinvented Understanding of the City. AESOP 2005.

Beauregard, R. “Aberrant Cities: Urban Population Loss in the United States, 1820-1930.” Urban Geography. 24 (2003), 672-690.

Belsley, David A, Edwin Kuh, and Roy E. Welsch. Regression Diagnostics : Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. New York:Wiley, 1980.

Bontje, M. “Facing the Challenge of Shrinking Cities in East Germany: The Case of Leipzig.” GeoJournal. 61 (2004): 13-21.

Chan, Edwin, and Grace K. L. Lee. "The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach for Assessment of Urban Renewal Proposals." Social Indicators Research. 85 (2008): 155-168.

Glaeser, Edward and Joseph Gyourko. “Urban Decline and Durable Housing.” Journal of Political Economy. 113, no. 2 (2005), 345-375.

Hall, Peter. “Modeling the Post-Industrial City.” Futures. 29, no. 4/5 (1997): 311-322.

Hanlon, Bernadette. “The Decline of Older, Inner Suburbs in Metropolitan America.” Housing Policy Debate. 19, no. 3 (2008): 423-456. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2019.3/hanlon_article_w.pdf

Hasse, Dagmar. “Urban Ecology of Shrinking Cities: An Unrecognized Opportunity.” Nature and Culture. 3, no. 1 (2008): 1-8.

Hollander, Justin. B., K. Pallagst, T. Schwarz, and F.J. Popper. Planning Shrinking Cities. 2009. Available at http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/popper/ShrinkingCities.pdf

Hudnut, William H. Cities on the Rebound: a Shared Vision of Urban America. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1998.

Jackson, Kenneth. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanizaton of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Keating, W. Dennis, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star (eds.). Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1996. http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/kearev.html

Knox, Paul. L. “Creating Ordinary Places: Slow Cities in a Fast World.” Journal of Urban Design. 10, no. 1 (2005): 1-11.

Kromer, John. Neighborhood Recovery: Reinvestment Policy for the New Hometown. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000. http://www.amazon.com/Neighborhood-Recovery-Reinvestment-Policy-Hometown/dp/0813527171

Martinez-Fernandez, Christina and Wu Chung-Tong. “Shrinking Cities in Australia: State of Australian Cities.” University of Western Sydney, Australia, 2007.  p.795-810. http://www.fbe.unsw.edu.au/cityfutures/SOAC/shrinkingcities.pdf 

Mayer, Heike and Paul L. Knox. “Slow Cities: Sustainable Places in a Fast World.” Journal of Urban Affairs. 28, no. 4 (2006), 321-334.

Northam, Ray M. “Declining Urban Centers in the United States: 1940-1960.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 53, no. 1 (1963): 50-59.

Parr, Adrian. "Shrinking Cities: Between 1990 and 2000, One in Four of the World's Cities Was Shrinking." Landscape Architecture Australia. 116 (2007): 33-37.

Popper, Deborah, and Frank J. Popper. "Small Can Be Beautiful." Journal of Planning Literature. 17, no. 2 (2002): 262-331.

Popper, D.E., and F.J. Popper. “Small Can Be Beautiful: Coming to Terms With Decline.” Planning. 68, no. 7 (2002): 20-23.

Rosenthal, Stuart S. "Old Homes, Externalities, and Poor Neighborhoods. A Model of Urban Decline and Renewal." Journal of Urban Economics. 63, no. 3 (2008): 816.

Rust, Edgar. No Growth: Impacts on Metropolitan Areas. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1975.

Rybczynski, Witold and Peter D. Linneman. “How to Save Our Shrinking Cities.” Public Interest. 135 (1999): 30-44.  -- Summary / review

Ryznar, Rhonda M., and Thomas W. Wagner. “Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Detect Urban Change : Viewing Detroit from Space.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 67, no. 3 (2001).

Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Schilling, Joseph. In Cities Growing Smaller: Urban Infill.  Edited by Steve Rugare and Terry Schwarz.  Cleveland:  Kent State University, 2008. 31-43.

Schilling, J. and J. Logan. “Greening the Rust Belt: A Green Infrastructure Model for Right Sizing America's Shrinking Cities.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 74, no. 4 (2008): 451-466.

Temkin, Kenneth and William Rohe. “Neighborhood Change and Urban Policy.” Journal of Planning Education and Research. 15 (1996):159-170.

Vale, Lawrence J. and Thomas J. Campanella, ed. The Resilient City: How Modern Cities Recover From Disaster. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Vergara, C. J. The New American Ghetto. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Wilson, W.J. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Brownfield Redevelopment -- back to top

Beck, N. J., A.V. Chan, B. Kalra, B., R. Malloy, H.L. McPhail, R.M. Schneider, D. Somers, S.E. Traxler, and X. Wang. New Directions for Vehicle City: A Framework for Brownfield Reuse. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 2005. http://sitemaker.umich.edu/urpoutreachreports/economic_development__c_/da.data/504802/ReportFile/new_directions_for_vehicle_city.pdf
Dewar, Margaret and Kris Wernstedt. “Challenges in Reusing Vacant, Abandoned, and Contaminated Urban Properties.”  Land Lines. April, 2-7, 2009.  -- Summary / review

Case Studies -- back to top

Aeppel, T. “Youngstown thinks small to counter population decline.” The Wall Street Journal. May 3, 2007. [Case Studies]

Bloomberg, Michael, and New York (NY). PlaNYC: a Greener, Greater New York. New York: The City of New York, 2007. http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/downloads/pdf/planyc_progress_report_2008.pdf

Bonfiglio, Olga. "Delicious in Detroit". Planning. 75 (2009): 32-37.

Bontje, M. “Facing the Challenge of Shrinking Cities in East Germany: The Case of Leipzig.” GeoJournal. 61 (2004): 13-21.

Cave, Damien. "After Century of Growth, Tide Turns in Florida." The New York Times, August 29, 2009. www.nytimes.com/2009/08/30/us/30florida.html?_r=1

Chicago (Ill.). Chicago Climate Action Plan: Our City, Our Future. Chicago, Ill: City of Chicago, 2008. http://www.chicagoclimateaction.org/filebin/pdf/finalreport/CCAPREPORTFINAL.pdf.

City of Youngstown. Youngstown 2010 Citywide Plan. Youngstown (OH), 2005.

Clancy, Michael and Casey Newton. “Phoenix May Be Losing People.” The Arizona Republic, January 12, 2009. www.azcentral.com/news/articles/2009/01/12/20090112phxpopulation0107.html

Clark, D. Urban Decline: The British Experience. London: Routledge, 1989.

Cleveland Community Research Partners and ReBuild Ohio. $60 Million and Counting: The Cost of Vacant and Abandoned Properties to Eight Ohio Cities. 2008. http://communityresearchpartners.org/uploads/publications//FullReport_Nonembargoed.pdf.

Coates, Sam. “David Cameron Faces a Grim Trip up North After Call to Abandon Poor Cities,” The Times (London). August 13, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article4518991.ece

Cohen, James R. “Abandoned Housing: Exploring Lessons from Baltimore.” Housing Policy Debate. 12, no. 3 (2001): 415-48. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2012(3)/hpd%2012(3)_cohen.pdf

Culhane, Dennis P., and Amy E. Hillier. “Comment on Abandoned Housing: Exploring Lessons From Baltimore.” Housing Policy Debate. 12, no. 3 (2001): 449-55. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2012(3)/hpd%2012(4)_culhane.pdf

Dougherty, Conor. “Cities Grow at Suburbs' Expense During Recession.” The Wall Street Journal. July 1, 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124641839713978195.html

Dovery, K. and L. Sandercock. “Pleasure, Politics, and the ‘Public Interest’ : Melbourne’s Riverscape Revitalization.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 68, no. 2 (2002): 151-165.

Edsforth, Ronald William. A second industrial revolution: The transformation of class, culture, and society in Twentieth-Century Flint. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Michigan, Michigan State University, 1982.

Eggler, Bruce. “It's Time for New Orleans to Admit It's a Shrinking City, Some Say,” NOLA.com, 22 November 22, 2008. (Part 1 of 2 – link to Part 2 provided in the article) http://www.nola.com/news/index.ssf/2008/11/its_time_for_new_orleans_to_ad.html

Friedman, Eric. “Vacant Properties in Baltimore: Strategies for Reuse.”  January 18, 2003. http://ips.jhu.edu/elements/pdf/ips/abell/ericabell.pdf

Gasser, W. “The Southeast Land Bank.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 45 no. 4 (1979): 532-537.

Giles-Gee, Helen, and Mark Rozewski. "Higher Education and Health Care Institutions as Stimuli for the Revitalization of Camden, New Jersey, Through Capital Expansion,Collaboration, and Political Advocacy." Planning for Higher Education. 2006: 5-13.

Gilman, Theodore J. “Urban Redevelopment in Omuta, Japan and Flint, Michigan: A Comparison.” In The Japanese City, edited by P. P. Karan. and K. Stapleton. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

Hoyt, Homer. One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933.

Hudnut, William H. Cities on the Rebound: a Shared Vision of Urban America. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1998.

Keating, W. Dennis and Thomas Bier. Greater Cleveland’s First Suburbs Consortium: Fighting Sprawl and Suburban Decline. Housing Policy Debate. 19, no. 3 (2008): 457-477. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2019.3/keating_article_w.pdf

Kühn, M. & H. Liebmann. Strategies for Urban Regeneration – The Transformation of Cities in Northern England and Eastern Germany. Restructuring Eastern Germany. Springer: Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g273215603gtg568/

Lackmeyer, Steve, and Jack Money. OKC: Second Time Around: A Renaissance Story. Oklahoma City, Okla: Full Circle Press, 2006.

Lay, Tim, and Bestor Cram (directors). Making Sense of Place:  Cleveland:  Confronting Decline in an American City.  DVD. Northern Light Productions and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2006. -- Summary / review

Lunday, E. "Reviving Neighborhoods through Art". Urban Land. 66, no. 8 (2007): 70-75.

Matthews, Rick Arnold. What's good for GM...: Deindustrialization and crime in four Michigan cities, 1975—1993. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Western Michigan University, 1997.

May, George S. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965.

McGovern, Stephen J. “Philadelphia’s Neighborhood Transformation Initiative: A Case Study of Mayoral Leadership, Bold Planning and Conflict.” Housing Policy Debate. 17, no. 3 (2006): 529-570. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2017(3)/hpd_1703_mcgovern.pdf

Miller, Matt. “Regional Report: Milwaukee: Beyond the Rust Belt,” The Deal Magazine. June 2, 2008. http://www.thedeal.com/newsweekly/features/regional-report-milwaukee-beyo.php

Newberg, S. "Melbourne Reborn: Melbourne, Australia's City Center Has Come to Life Over the Past 20 Years and Is Now Burgeoning With New Public Parks, Squares, and Art; Improved Streetscapes; and More Downtown Housing.” Urban Land. 67, no. 10 (2008): 109-115.

Northam, Ray M. “Declining Urban Centers in the United States: 1940-1960.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 53, no. 1 (1963): 50-59.

Pickard, J., and W. Chilton. "Five Cities, Five Strategies for Regeneration". Urban Land. 66, no. 7 (2007): 50-58.

Pittsburgh (Pa.). Pittsburgh Climate Action Plan, Version 1.0. Pittsburgh, Pa: Green Building Alliance, 2008. www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/district8/.../08_pgh_climate_action_plan.pdf

Price-Spratlen, Townsand and Avery Guest. “Race and Population Change: A Longitudinal Look at Cleveland Neighborhoods.” Sociological Forum. 17, no. 1 (2002): 105-136.

Self, Robert O. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Sheridan, M. "Houston's Downtown Transformation: More Than $4 Billion in Public and Private Projects Has Transformed the Central Business District of America's Fourth-Largest City.” Urban Land. 67, no. 10 (2008): 82-93.

Smith, Neil, Paul Caris, and Elvin Wyly. “The ‘Camden Syndrome’ and the Menace of Suburban Decline: Residential Disinvestment and Its Discontents in Camden County, New Jersey.” Urban Affairs Review.36, no. 4 (2001): 497-531.

Sugrue, T.J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Summerton, Michael. “From Motor City to Garden City.” Planetizen. April 27, 2009. http://www.planetizen.com/node/38482

Wachter, S. M. & Gillen, K.C. “Public Investment Strategies: How They Matter for Neighborhoods in Philadelphia.” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2006. www.upenn.edu/penniur/pdf/Public%20Investment%20Strategies.pdf

Wilson, D. and H. Margulis. “Spatial Aspects of Housing Abandonment in the 1990s: The Cleveland Experience.” Housing Studies. 9, no. 4 (1994):493-511.

Winthrop, Bob and Rebecca Herr. “Determining the Co$t of Vacancies in Baltimore.” Government Finance Review. 25, no. 3 (2009).

Causes of Decline -- back to top

Beauregard, Robert A. Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of U.S. Cities. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Beauregard, R. “Aberrant Cities: Urban Population Loss in the United States, 1820-1930.” Urban Geography. 24 (2003), 672-690.

Bluestone, Barry, and Bennett Harrison. The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community Abandonment and the Dismantling of Basic Industry. New York: Basic, 1982. http://www.amazon.com/Deindustrialization-America-Community-Abandonment-Dismantling/dp/0465015921/

Clark, D. Urban Decline: The British Experience. London: Routledge, 1989.

Edsforth, Ronald William. A second industrial revolution: The transformation of class, culture, and society in Twentieth-Century Flint. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Michigan, Michigan State University, 1982.

Hanlon, Bernadette. “The Decline of Older, Inner Suburbs in Metropolitan America.” Housing Policy Debate. 19, no. 3 (2008): 423-456. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2019.3/hanlon_article_w.pd

Jackson, Kenneth. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanizaton of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Lang, R.E. Edgeless Cities: Exploring the Elusive Metropolis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

Lay, Tim, and Bestor Cram (directors). Making Sense of Place:  Cleveland:  Confronting Decline in an American City.  DVD. Northern Light Productions and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2006. -- Summary / review

Lemann, Nicholas. “The Myth of Community Development.” New York Times Magazine. January 9, 1994. 6-27.  -- Summary / review

Matthews, Rick Arnold. What's good for GM...: Deindustrialization and crime in four Michigan cities, 1975—1993. Unpublished Ph.D. diss. Western Michigan University, 1997.

May, George S. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965.

Pallagst, K. M. “The End of the Growth Machine.” Berliner Debatte Initial. January 2007.

Smith, Neil, Paul Caris, and Elvin Wyly. “The ‘Camden Syndrome’ and the Menace of Suburban Decline: Residential Disinvestment and Its Discontents in Camden County, New Jersey.” Urban Affairs Review.36, no. 4 (2001): 497-531.

Stohr, K. “Shrinking City Syndrome.” The New York Times. February 5, 2004.

Sugrue, T.J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Vergara, C. J. The New American Ghetto. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Wallace, R. “Homelessness, Contagious Destruction of Housing and Municipal Service Cuts in New York City: 1. Demographics of a Housing Deficit.” Environment and Planning A. 21 (1989): 1285-1603.

Community Development -- back to top

Andrews, Nancy.  Equity with a Twist: The Changing Capital Needs of the Community Development Field.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, 2001. www.brookings.edu/articles/2001/04metropolitanpolicy_andrews.aspx?p=1

Anglin, Roland V. (Ed.).  Building the Organizations that Build Communities:  Strengthening the Capacity of Faith- and Community-Based Development Organizations.  Washington, DC:  US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2004.  http://www.huduser.org/Publications/pdf/buldOrgCommunities.pdf

Annie E. Casey Foundation. Responsible Redevelopment: Relocation Road Map 1.0.
Neighborhood Development Best Practices. Baltimore, MD.: Annie E. Casey Foundation.
2008. -- Summary / Review

Annie E. Casey Foundation. Eminent Domain: Implications for Community Redevelopment
Efforts. Monograph series on Neighborhood Development. Baltimore, MD.: Annie E. Casey
Foundation. 2007. -- Summary / Review

Bratt, Rachel G.  “Community Development Corporations and Other Nonprofit Housing Organizations:  Challenges Presented by the Private Housing Market.”  Cambridge:  Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2006.  https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/1173_Community-Development-Corporations-and-Other-Nonprofit-Housing-Organizations

Bratt, Rachel G.  (2008).  Viewing Housing Holistically: The Resident-Focused Component of the Housing-Plus Agenda.  Journal of the American Planning Association.  74, no.1 (2008), 100-110.  http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/912807_787828543_789166120.pdf

Fullilove, Mindy T.  Root Shock, How Tearing Up City Neighhorhoods Hurts America, And What We Can Do About It. New York, N.Y.: One World / Ballantine Books. 2004. -- Summary / Review

Krumholz, Norman; Keating, W. D.; Star, Philip D.; & Chupp, Mark C.  (2006).  The Long-term Impact of CDCs on Urban Neighborhoods:  Case Studies of Cleveland's Broadway-Slavic Village and Tremont Neighborhoods.  Journal of Community Development Society.  37, no.4 (2006), 33-52.

McShepard, Randell and Stewart, Fran. “Rebuilding Blocks: Efforts to Revive Cleveland Must
Start by Treating What Ails Neighborhoods”. Public Policy. Cleveland, OH: PolicyBridge.
2009. -- Summary / Review

Meyer, Diana A.; Britt, Trevor; Cardenas, Sabina; Fromm, David; Kennedy, Ian; Magnuson, Patricia; et al.  Creating Opportunities for Families Through Resident Services: A Practitioner's Manual.  Columbia, MD:  Enterprise Community Partners, Inc., 2006.  http://www.practitionerresources.org/cache/documents/556/55682.pdf

National Congress for Community Economic Development (NCCED).  Reaching New Heights: Trends and Achievements of Community-Based Development Organizations.  Washington, DC: NCCED, 2005.  http://www.ncced.org/documents/NCCEDCensus2005FINALReport.pdf

Rohe, William M., Bratt, Rachel G., & Biswas, Protip. Evolving Challenges for Community Development Corporations: The Causes and Impacts of Failures, Downsizings and Mergers.  Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, 2003.

Stoecker, Randy.  The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment:  A Critique and an Alternative.  Journal of Urban Affairs.  19, no.1 (1997), 1–22.  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.ezproxy.lib.vt.edu:8080/cgi-bin/fulltext/119831355/PDFSTART

Vidal, Avis C.  Can Community Development Re-Invent Itself? The Challenges of Strengthening Neighborhoods in the 21st Century.  Journal of the American Planning Association.  63, no.4 (1997), 429–438.  http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/691991_787828543_787397251.pdf

Zielenbach, Sean.   Measuring the Impact of Community Development.  Communities & Banking.  Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Fall 2004.  http://www.bos.frb.org/commdev/c&b/2004/Fall/Measuring.pdf.

Ecology -- back to top

Hasse, Dagmar. “Urban Ecology of Shrinking Cities: An Unrecognized Opportunity.” Nature and Culture. 3, no. 1 (2008): 1-8.

Economic Development -- back to top

Andrews, Nancy.  Equity with a Twist: The Changing Capital Needs of the Community Development Field.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, 2001. www.brookings.edu/articles/2001/04metropolitanpolicy_andrews.aspx?p=

Desplaces, David E., Margery Steinberg, Susan Coleman, and Amy Kenworthy-U'Ren. "A Human Capital Model: Service-Learning in the Micro Business Incubator Program." Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. 2006: 66-80.

Foote, Jane. "Health Careers Institute: A Model of Workforce Development." Community College Journal of Research & Practice. (2006): 129-130.

Giles-Gee, Helen, and Mark Rozewski. "Higher Education and Health Care Institutions as Stimuli for the Revitalization of Camden, New Jersey, Through Capital Expansion,Collaboration, and Political Advocacy." Planning for Higher Education. 2006: 5-13.

Mallach, Alan, Lavea Brachman.  Ohio's Cities at a Turning Point:  Finding the Way Forward.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010.   http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2010/0518_ohio_cities_mallach_brachman.aspx

Reep, Richard. "Live By the Specialty, Die By the Specialty." New Geography. August 23, 2009. http://www.newgeography.com/content/00981-live-specialty-die-specialty.

Schumacher, E.F. Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Sheridan, M. "Houston's Downtown Transformation: More Than $4 Billion in Public and Private Projects Has Transformed the Central Business District of America's Fourth-Largest City.” Urban Land. 67, no. 10 (2008): 82-93.

Vale, Lawrence J. and Thomas J. Campanella, ed. The Resilient City: How Modern Cities Recover From Disaster. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Wachter, Susan M., Gillen, Kevin C., and Brown, Carolyn R. "Green Investment Strategies: A Positive Force in Cities." Communities & Banking. 2008: 25‐27.  --  Summary / Review

Zielenbach, Sean.   Measuring the Impact of Community Development.  Communities & Banking.  Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Fall 2004.  http://www.bos.frb.org/commdev/c&b/2004/Fall/Measuring.pdf.

Education -- back to top

Giles-Gee, Helen, and Mark Rozewski. "Higher Education and Health Care Institutions as Stimuli for the Revitalization of Camden, New Jersey, Through Capital Expansion,Collaboration, and Political Advocacy." Planning for Higher Education. 2006: 5-13.

Hollander, Pamela and Justin Hollander. “Activist Literacy in Shrinking Cities: Lessons for Urban Education.” Language Arts Journal of Michigan, 23, no. 3 (2008): 42-50.

Governance & Policy -- back to top

Aber, Jasmin. “The Future of Shrinking Cities - Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context.”  Edited by Karina Pallagst and others. Center for Global Metropolitan Studies, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, and the Shrinking Cities International Research Network, 2009.  111-120.  www.shrinkingcities.org

Accordino, John, George Galster, and Peter Tatian. “The Impact of Targeted Public and Nonprofit Development on Neighborhood Development,” Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. July 2005. http://www.richmondfed.org/community_development/emerging_issues/reports/pdf/nib_research.pdf
Alexander, Frank S. “Landbanking as Metropolitan Policy.” Blueprint for American Prosperity.Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. 2008. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2008/1028_mortgage_crisis_alexander.aspx.

Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program. Restoring Prosperity: The State Role in Revitalizing America’s Older Industrial Cities. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2007.

Brophy, Paul and Jennifer Vey. “Seizing City Assets: Ten Steps to Urban Land Reform,” The Brookings Institution, October 2002. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2002/10metropolitanpolicy_brophy/brophyveyvacantsteps.pdf

City of Youngstown. Youngstown 2010 Citywide Plan. Youngstown (OH), 2005.

Finkler, Earl, William J. Toner, Frank J. Popper. Urban Nongrowth : City Planning for People. New York: Praeger, 1976.

Hollander, Justin. B., K. Pallagst, T. Schwarz, and F.J. Popper. Planning Shrinking Cities. 2009. http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/popper/ShrinkingCities.pdf

Keating, W. Dennis and Thomas Bier. Greater Cleveland’s First Suburbs Consortium: Fighting Sprawl and Suburban Decline. Housing Policy Debate. 19, no. 3 (2008): 457-477. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2019.3/keating_article_w.pdf

Kromer, John. Neighborhood Recovery: Reinvestment Policy for the New Hometown. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000. http://www.amazon.com/Neighborhood-Recovery-Reinvestment-Policy-Hometown/dp/0813527171

Leigh, Nancey Greene. “The State Role in Urban Land Redevelopment.” The Brookings Institution. April 2003. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2003/04metropolitanpolicy_leigh/leighvacant.pdf
Mallach, Alan.  Facing the Urban Challenge:  Reimagining Land Use in America's Distressed Older Cities:  The Federal Policy Role.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2010/0518_shrinking_cities_mallach.aspx

Mallach, Alan, Lavea Brachman.  Ohio's Cities at a Turning Point:  Finding the Way Forward.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2010/0518_ohio_cities_mallach_brachman.aspx

Robinson and Cole. “Urban Blight: An Analysis of State Blight Statutes and Their Implications for Eminent Domain Reform.” Realtor. October 2007. http://www.vacantproperties.org/resources/documents/NAR_blight.pdf

Temkin, Kenneth and William Rohe. “Neighborhood Change and Urban Policy.” Journal of Planning Education and Research. 15 (1996):159-170.

United States Conference of Mayors. Combating Problems of Vacant and Abandoned Properties:  Best Practices in 27 Cities.  June 2006. www.usmayors.org

Vey, Jennifer S. Restoring Prosperity: The State Role in Revitalizing America’s Older Industrial Cities. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, 2007.

Wachter, S. M. & Gillen, K.C. “Public Investment Strategies: How They Matter for Neighborhoods in Philadelphia.” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2006. www.upenn.edu/penniur/pdf/Public%20Investment%20Strategies.pdf

Wiechmann, Thorsten. “Errors Expected – Aligning Urban Strategy with Demographic Uncertainty in Shrinking Cities.” International Planning Studies. 13, no. 4 (2008): 431-446.

Wilson, W.J. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Housing -- back to top

Been, V. and I. Voicu. “The Effect of Community Gardens on Neighboring Property Values.” New York University School of Law, New York University Law and Economic Working Papers, 2006. http://lsr.nellco.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1049&context=nyu_lewp

Evans, Candy. "New Feudalism: Does Home Ownership Have a Future?" New Geography. August 27, 2009. http://www.newgeography.com/content/00991-new-feudalism-does-home-ownership-have-a-future.

Glaeser, Edward and Joseph Gyourko. “Urban Decline and Durable Housing.” Journal of Political Economy. 113, no. 2 (2005), 345-375.

Hillier, A.E., D.P. Culhane, T.E. Smith, and C.D. Tomlin. “Predicting Housing Abandonment With the Philadelphia Neighborhood Information System.” Journal of Urban Affairs. 25, no. 1 (2003):91-105.

Kane, Mary. "Zombie Subdivisions and Shadow Inventories Holding Back Housing Recovery." The Washington Independent. August 11, 2009. http://washingtonindependent.com/54584/zombie-subdivisions-and-shadow-inventories-hold-back-a-housing-recovery.

Leigh, Nancey Green, and Sarah L. Coffin. “Modeling the Relationship among Brownfields, Property Values, and Community Revitalization.” Housing Policy Debate. 16 , no. 2 (2005): 257-280.  -- Summary / review

Libertun de Duren, Nora. “Gated Communities as a Municipal Development Strategy.” Housing Policy Debate. 18, no. 3 (2007): 607-626. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2018.3/hpd_libertun_web.pdf

Rosenthal, Stuart S. "Old Homes, Externalities, and Poor Neighborhoods. A Model of Urban Decline and Renewal." Journal of Urban Economics. 63, no. 3 (2008): 816.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy Development and Research. U.S. Housing Market Conditions. May 2004.

Wallace, R. “Homelessness, Contagious Destruction of Housing and Municipal Service Cuts in New York City: 1. Demographics of a Housing Deficit.” Environment and Planning A. 21 (1989): 1285-1603.

Wilson, D. and H. Margulis. “Spatial Aspects of Housing Abandonment in the 1990s: The Cleveland Experience.” Housing Studies. 9, no. 4 (1994):493-511.

Information System -- back to top

Treuhaft, Sarah & Kingsley, G. Thomas.  Transforming Community Development With Land Information Systems:  Policy Focus Report.  Cambridge:  Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2008.  https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/download-thankyou.asp?doc_id=676

International -- back to top

Aber, Jasmin. “The Future of Shrinking Cities - Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context.”  Edited by Karina Pallagst and others. Center for Global Metropolitan Studies, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, and the Shrinking Cities International Research Network, 2009.  111-120.  www.shrinkingcities.org

Armborst, Tobias, Daniel D'Oca, and Georgeen Theodore. “However Unspectacular.” In Philipp Oswalt (ed.): Shrinking cities. Volume 2: Interventions. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2005.

Bontje, M. “Facing the Challenge of Shrinking Cities in East Germany: The Case of Leipzig.” GeoJournal. 61 (2004): 13-21.

Clark, D. Urban Decline: The British Experience. London: Routledge, 1989.

Coates, Sam. “David Cameron Faces a Grim Trip up North After Call to Abandon Poor Cities,” The Times (London). August 13, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article4518991.ece

Dovery, K. and L. Sandercock. “Pleasure, Politics, and the ‘Public Interest’ : Melbourne’s Riverscape Revitalization.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 68, no. 2 (2002): 151-165.

Kasumagic, Larisa. "Engaging Youth in Community Development: Post-War Healing and Recovery in Bosnia and Herzegovina." International Review of Education. 2008: 375-392.

Kühn, M. & H. Liebmann. Strategies for Urban Regeneration – The Transformation of Cities in Northern England and Eastern Germany. Restructuring Eastern Germany. Springer: Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g273215603gtg568/

Martinez-Fernandez, Christina and Wu Chung-Tong. “Shrinking Cities in Australia: State of Australian Cities.” University of Western Sydney, Australia, 2007.  p.795-810. http://www.fbe.unsw.edu.au/cityfutures/SOAC/shrinkingcities.pdf 

Newberg, S. "Melbourne Reborn: Melbourne, Australia's City Center Has Come to Life Over the Past 20 Years and Is Now Burgeoning With New Public Parks, Squares, and Art; Improved Streetscapes; and More Downtown Housing.” Urban Land. 67, no. 10 (2008): 109-115.

Oswalt, B.P and T. Rieniets. “Global context: Shrinking Cities.” Shrinking Cities Web Site. 2007. http://www.shrinkingcities.com/globaler_kontext.0.html?&L=1.

Pallagst, K. M. “The End of the Growth Machine.” Berliner Debatte Initial. January 2007.

Parr, Adrian. "Shrinking Cities: Between 1990 and 2000, One in Four of the World's Cities Was Shrinking." Landscape Architecture Australia. 116 (2007): 33-37.

Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Land Use -- back to top

Hollander, Justin B. and Frank Popper. “Planning Practice and the Shrinking City: Reversing the Land Use Location Model.” Plan Canada. 47, no. 2 (2007): 38-40.

Hoyt, Homer. One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933.

Mallach, Alan.  Facing the Urban Challenge:  Reimagining Land Use in America's Distressed Older Cities:  The Federal Policy Role.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2010/0518_shrinking_cities_mallach.aspx

Mallach, Alan, Lavea Brachman.  Ohio's Cities at a Turning Point:  Finding the Way Forward.  Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institute, May 2010.  http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2010/0518_ohio_cities_mallach_brachman.aspx

Swope, Christopher. “Smart Decline.” Governing Magazine. November 2006. http://www.governing.com/articles/11cities.htm.

Participatory Planning -- back to top

Agyeman, Julian and Tom Evans. “Toward Just Sustainability in Urban Communities: Building Equity Rights with Sustainable Solutions.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 590 (2003): 35-53.

Dovery, K. and L. Sandercock. “Pleasure, Politics, and the ‘Public Interest’ : Melbourne’s Riverscape Revitalization.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 68, no. 2 (2002): 151-165.

Finkler, Earl, William J. Toner, Frank J. Popper. Urban Nongrowth : City Planning for People. New York: Praeger, 1976.

Hollander, Pamela and Justin Hollander. “Activist Literacy in Shrinking Cities: Lessons for Urban Education.” Language Arts Journal of Michigan, 23, no. 3 (2008): 42-50.

Hurley, Andrew. “Narrating the Urban Waterfront: The Role of Public History in Community Revitalization.” The Public Historian. 28, no. 4 (2006): 19-50.

Hutzel, Karen. "Reconstructing a Community, Reclaiming a Playground: A Participatory Action Research Study." Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education. 2007: 299-315.

McGovern, Stephen J. “Philadelphia’s Neighborhood Transformation Initiative: A Case Study of Mayoral Leadership, Bold Planning and Conflict.” Housing Policy Debate. 17, no. 3 (2006): 529-570. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2017(3)/hpd_1703_mcgovern.pdf

Self, Robert O. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Wachter, S. M. & Gillen, K.C. “Public Investment Strategies: How They Matter for Neighborhoods in Philadelphia.” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2006. www.upenn.edu/penniur/pdf/Public%20Investment%20Strategies.pdf

Planning Documents -- back to top

Bloomberg, Michael, and New York (NY). PlaNYC: a Greener, Greater New York. New York: The City of New York, 2007. http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/downloads/pdf/planyc_progress_report_2008.pdf

Chicago (Ill.). Chicago Climate Action Plan: Our City, Our Future. Chicago, Ill: City of Chicago, 2008. http://www.chicagoclimateaction.org/filebin/pdf/finalreport/CCAPREPORTFINAL.pdf.

City of Youngstown. Youngstown 2010 Citywide Plan. Youngstown (OH), 2005.

Pittsburgh (Pa.). Pittsburgh Climate Action Plan, Version 1.0. Pittsburgh, Pa: Green Building Alliance, 2008. www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/district8/.../08_pgh_climate_action_plan.pdf

Psychology of Place -- back to top

Fullilove, Mindy Thompson. "Psychiatric Implications of Displacement:Contributions from the Psychology of Place." The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996: 1516-1523.

Fullilove, Mindy Thompson. "Root Shock: The Consequences of African American Disposession." Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2001:72-80.

Kasumagic, Larisa. "Engaging Youth in Community Development: Post-War Healing and Recovery in Bosnia and Herzegovina." International Review of Education. 2008: 375-392.

Kinloch, Valerie. "Youth Representations of Community, Art, and Struggle in Harlem." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. 2007: 37-49.

Lunday, E. "Reviving Neighborhoods through Art". Urban Land. 66, no. 8 (2007): 70-75.

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Matthews, Anne. Where the Buffalo Roam. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1992.

Social Networks -- back to top

Chan, Edwin, and Grace K. L. Lee. "Critical Factors for Improving Social Sustainability of Urban Renewal Projects." Social Indicators Research. 85 (2008): 243-256.

Chan, Edwin, and Grace K. L. Lee. "The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach for Assessment of Urban Renewal Proposals." Social Indicators Research. 85 (2008): 155-168.

Choldin, Harvey M. and Claudine Hanson. “Subcommunity Change in a Changing Metropolis.” The Sociological Quarterly 22 (1981): 549-564.

Delken, Ellis. “Happiness in Shrinking Cities in Germany: A Research Note.” Journal of Happiness Studies. 9 (2008): 213-218. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t105226n16p06089/fulltext.pdf

Hillier, A.E., D.P. Culhane, T.E. Smith, and C.D. Tomlin. “Predicting Housing Abandonment With the Philadelphia Neighborhood Information System.” Journal of Urban Affairs. 25, no. 1 (2003):91-105.

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Stimulus 2009 -- back to top

Fremstad, Shawn, Radhika Fox, and Jason Walsh. “Bringing Home the Green Recovery: A User’s guide to the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” Center for Economic and Policy Research, CEPR Reports and Issues Briefs. 2009.  -- Summary / review

Good Jobs First. “High Road or Low Road?” Job Quality in the New Green Economy. February 2009. http://www.goodjobsfirst.org/pdf/gjfgreenjobsrpt.pdf

National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials Staff. “The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: A Primer for the HCD Practitioner.” Journal of Housing and Community Development. 66, no. 2 (2009): 30-35.

Sustainability -- back to top

Agyeman, Julian and Tom Evans. “Toward Just Sustainability in Urban Communities: Building Equity Rights with Sustainable Solutions.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 590 (2003): 35-53.

Bloomberg, Michael, and New York (NY). PlaNYC: a Greener, Greater New York. New York: The City of New York, 2007. http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/downloads/pdf/planyc_progress_report_2008.pdf

Chicago (Ill.). Chicago Climate Action Plan: Our City, Our Future. Chicago, Ill: City of Chicago, 2008. http://www.chicagoclimateaction.org/filebin/pdf/finalreport/CCAPREPORTFINAL.pdf.

Dair, Carol M. and Katie Williams. “Sustainable Land Reuse: The Influence of Different Stakeholders in Achieving Sustainable Brownfield Developments in England.” Environment and Planning A. 38, no. 7 (2006): 1345-66.   (abstract) -- Summary / review

Hudnut, William H. Changing Metropolitan America: Planning for a Sustainable Future. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2008.

Knox, Paul. L. “Creating Ordinary Places: Slow Cities in a Fast World.” Journal of Urban Design. 10, no. 1 (2005): 1-11.

Mayer, Heike and Paul L. Knox. “Slow Cities: Sustainable Places in a Fast World.” Journal of Urban Affairs. 28, no. 4 (2006), 321-334.

Pittsburgh (Pa.). Pittsburgh Climate Action Plan, Version 1.0. Pittsburgh, Pa: Green Building Alliance, 2008. www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/district8/.../08_pgh_climate_action_plan.pdf

Schilling, J. and J. Logan. “Greening the Rust Belt: A Green Infrastructure Model for Right Sizing America's Shrinking Cities.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 74, no. 4 (2008): 451-466.

Tumber, Catherine. “Small, Green and Good:  the Role of Neglected Cities in a Sustainable Future.”  Boston Review. March/April 2009. -- Summary / review

Vogel, M. "Greening Waterfront Development." Urban Land. 66, no. 8 (2007): 76-83.

Zande, Robin Vande (2006). "The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things." International Journal of Art & Design Education. 2006: 205-216.

Urban Agriculture -- back to top

Been, V. and I. Voicu. “The Effect of Community Gardens on Neighboring Property Values.” New York University School of Law, New York University Law and Economic Working Papers, 2006.  http://lsr.nellco.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1049&context=nyu_lewp

 

Kauffman, Jerry and Bailkey. Farming Inside Cities: Entrepreneurial Urban Agriculture in the United States. Cambridge: Lincoln Land Institute of Land Policy, 2000. https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/95_Farming-Inside-Cities.

Mendes, W., K. Balmer, T. Kaethler, and A. Rhoads. “Using Land Inventories to Plan for Urban Agriculture.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 74, no. 4 (2008): 435-450.

Tumber, Catherine. “Small, Green and Good:  the Role of Neglected Cities in a Sustainable Future.”  Boston Review. March/April 2009.  -- Summary / review

Zande, Robin Vande (2006). "The Advantages of a Rooftop Garden and Other Things." International Journal of Art & Design Education. 2006: 205-216.

Vacant Property -- back to top

Accordino, John and Gary Johnson. “Addressing the Vacant and Abandoned Property Problem.” Journal of Urban Affairs 22 (2000): 301-315.

Alexander, Frank S. Land Bank Authorities: A Guide for the Creation and Operation of Local Land Banks. New York: Local Initiatives Support Corporation.2005. www.lisc.org/content/publications/detail/793.

Alexander, Frank S. “Landbanking as Metropolitan Policy.” Blueprint for American Prosperity.Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. 2008. Available at http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2008/1028_mortgage_crisis_alexander.aspx.

Bowman, Anne O'M., and Michael Pagano. Terra Incognita: Vacant Land and Urban Strategies. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2004.

Brophy, Paul and Jennifer Vey. “Seizing City Assets: Ten Steps to Urban Land Reform,” The Brookings Institution, October 2002. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2002/10metropolitanpolicy_brophy/brophyveyvacantsteps.pdf

Cleveland Community Research Partners and ReBuild Ohio. $60 Million and Counting: The Cost of Vacant and Abandoned Properties to Eight Ohio Cities. 2008. http://communityresearchpartners.org/uploads/publications//FullReport_Nonembargoed.pdf.

Cohen, James R. “Abandoned Housing: Exploring Lessons from Baltimore.” Housing Policy Debate. 12, no. 3 (2001): 415-48. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2012(3)/hpd%2012(3)_cohen.pdf

Culhane, Dennis P., and Amy E. Hillier. “Comment on Abandoned Housing: Exploring Lessons From Baltimore.” Housing Policy Debate. 12, no. 3 (2001): 449-55. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2012(3)/hpd%2012(4)_culhane.pdf

Dewar, Margaret. “Selling Tax-Reverted Land.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 72, no. 2 (2006): 167-180.

Dewar, Margaret and Kris Wernstedt. “Challenges in Reusing Vacant, Abandoned, and Contaminated Urban Properties.”  Land Lines. April, 2-7, 2009.  -- Summary / review

Friedman, Eric. “Vacant Properties in Baltimore: Strategies for Reuse.”  January 18, 2003. http://ips.jhu.edu/elements/pdf/ips/abell/ericabell.pdf

Gasser, W. “The Southeast Land Bank.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 45 no. 4 (1979): 532-537.

Gratz, Roberta Brandes. “Demolition a Wrong Answer For Imperiled Neighborhoods,” Citiwire, June 18, 2009. http://citiwire.net/post/1007/

Griswold, N. G. and P.E. Norris. “Economic Impacts of Residential Property Abandonment and the Genesee County Land Bank in Flint, Michigan.” The MSU Land Policy Institute. 2007. www.vacantproperties.org/resources/LPI_Genesee.pdf

Mallach, Alan. How to Spend $3.92 Billion: Stabilizing Neighborhoods by Addressing Foreclosed and Abandoned Properties. Philadelphia: Federal Reserve Bank, 2008.  http://www.philadelphiafed.org/community-development/publications/discussion-papers/DiscussionPapers_Mallach_10_08_final.pdf.

McGovern, Stephen J. “Philadelphia’s Neighborhood Transformation Initiative: A Case Study of Mayoral Leadership, Bold Planning and Conflict.” Housing Policy Debate. 17, no. 3 (2006): 529-570. http://www.mi.vt.edu/data/files/hpd%2017(3)/hpd_1703_mcgovern.pdf

Mendes, W., K. Balmer, T. Kaethler, and A. Rhoads. “Using Land Inventories to Plan for Urban Agriculture.” Journal of the American Planning Association. 74, no. 4 (2008): 435-450.

Miller, Matt. “Regional Report: Milwaukee: Beyond the Rust Belt,” The Deal Magazine. June 2, 2008. http://www.thedeal.com/newsweekly/features/regional-report-milwaukee-beyo.php

Policies to Address Urban Vacant Land and Property Reuse. Recycling the City: The Use and Reuse of Urban Land. Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Richmond Local Initiatives Support Cooperation, “The Ripple Effect.” (date unspecified) http://go.clientapp.com/vacantproperties/production/resources/ppts/Ripple%20Effect.pdf

Robinson and Cole. “Urban Blight: An Analysis of State Blight Statutes and Their Implications for Eminent Domain Reform.” Realtor. October 2007. http://www.vacantproperties.org/resources/documents/NAR_blight.pdf

Samsa, Matthew J. (2008). “Reclaiming Abandoned Properties: Using Public Nuisance Suits and Land Banks to Pursue Economic Redevelopment,” Cleveland State Law Review 56:189-232. http://www.clevelandstatelawreview.org/56/issue1/gSamsa_final.pdf

Summerton, Michael. “From Motor City to Garden City.” Planetizen. April 27, 2009. http://www.planetizen.com/node/38482

Wachter, Susan M., Gillen, Kevin C., and Brown, Carolyn R. "Green Investment Strategies: A Positive Force in Cities." Communities & Banking. 2008: 25‐27.  --  Summary / Review

Winthrop, Bob and Rebecca Herr. “Determining the Cost of Vacancies in Baltimore.” Government Finance Review. 25, no. 3 (2009).